Coke Drum Deheading

Coke Drum Deheading

Abstract

After Fluor developed and installed the first automated coke drum deheading system in 1988, Fluor engineers further developed a completely automated boltless coke drum closure for top and bottom head application, an automated drum chute system, an automated drum drill stem guide, a drill stem guide shield to prevent operators from being blasted with high pressure water jets, a throttling closure for dumping coke into rail cars, and the revolutionary movable switch deck floor system. Fluor's innovative approaches to coke drum deheading, including remote operation from start to finish, enhance operator safety.

Client Benefits

Fluor deheading systems have been installed on 32 drums and their modular construction allows the drum to be constructed offsite parallel to site construction allowing time efficient construction and installation. The state-of-the-art automated systems are safe, reliable and low maintenance, thus helping to keep Clients operational costs low.

Related Technologies

Automated Drum Chute System:
Improved coke chute systems include a lock that receives and automatically secures a coke-receiving conduit to a coke vessel after the lock is switched to a closed position. Contemplated systems may further be combined with a horizontally movable coke chute cover, or a cover that is moved by an actuator that lifts and rotates the cover from a first position to a second position.

Automated Drum Drill Stem Guide:
In a petroleum coking drum, a drill stem guide latches internally to a structure adjacent the drum opening, rather than externally to a flange about the drum opening. In preferred embodiments, the latching mechanism is spring loaded, and operated automatically as a function of raising and lowering the guide.

Drill Stem Guide Shield:
A high-pressure device has a drill stem with a drill head delivering a high-pressure fluid jet. A shield is movably coupled to the device, wherein the drill head is at least partially enclosed by the shield when the drill head is removed from the container.

Valve Installation Apparatus and Methods:
A deheader valve is fitted onto an existing or new coke drum by initially positioning the body and valve, and then raising the valve to mate with the flange using a lifting device other than a chain fall. The vertical positioning of the deheader valve is preferably accomplished with a hydraulic or pneumatic piston, winch, scissor jack, ratchet jack, screw jack, and so forth. The distance travelled by the valve using these devices is more than 2 cm, commonly at least 20 cm, and in some installations up to 40 cm or more. In retrofit situations an oil inlet is provided in a side wall of the drum above the bottom drum flange.

Movable Switch Deck Floor System:
Methods and compositions are provided which decrease the risk and spillage associated with discharging coke from a coking vessel. The risk to workers is decreased by eliminating the need for workers to be near the coking vessel while the head is being removed. The spillage is decreased by modifying the effective diameter of the coke chute inlet in a manner which allows it to catch any materials discharged from the coking vessel both during and after the opening of the bottom head. The process can enhance drum draining and further eliminate the need for process piping to facilitate the draining of water from the coking vessel.